* PAUSE AND REFLECT: Stop and ask yourself if you’ve found what you needed to find while reading and if everything made sense
* RE-READING: Re-read the text or portions of the text to help find additional answers, clear up confusing parts or review the info

* REMEMBER: Do something to help remember the info (graphic organizers, notes, activities, summarize, share with a friend, etc.)

  • A summarizing technique
  • After reading a selected passage, the students will summarize using only 15-20 (or more depending on needs) words.
  • Allow students to work in groups.
  • Sentences must remain grammatically correct
  • Allow for discussion

  • Use with expository text
  • Identify several key words or concepts (5-10, depending on length of text)
  • As a whole group, or as individuals write a summary using only the selected words and a few connector words.

  • P: Preview to identify main parts
  • Q: Develop questions to which you want to find answers
  • R: Read the material
  • S: State the central idea/theme
  • T: Test yourself by answering questions
  • Individual - Written- Extended

  • Survey - Question - Read - Recite - Review
  • Survey: Preview the text
  • Question: Turn headings into questions to set a purpose
  • Read: Read the text to answer the questions and write down the info in note form
  • Recite: Cover the answers to questions, read the questions, and recite answers from memory
  • Review: Write a summary of what has been learned using the answers to the questions
(can be done artistically/musically/orally/physically)
  • Individual - Written - Extended

  • Prior to reading survey the text for pictures, bold print, italics, etc.
  • After surveying, assist students in generating questions that they can not answer now
  • From these questions the students predict 3-5 concepts they think the story will be about
  • Then read the selection
  • Students orally respond to the previous questions. As a whole class, review which questions have been answered, which ones still need to be answered, and which ones probably won’t be answered.
  • At the end, summarize the selected text – this can be completed individually or in a group

  • Students are asked to think of one word to summarize the lesson
  • After sharing their word, they must then explain why they chose that word
  • Can be used as a whole class activity: brainstorm words together and determine which word is the best choice
  • Individual- Written- Short

  • Pluses - Minuses - and Interesting
  • Record statement at top of paper
  • Fill in advantages of the idea in the pluses column
  • Disadvantages/Negatives in the minuses column
  • Any ideas that do not fall into plus or minus category go in the interesting column
  • Oral/Interactive - Written - Short

  • Template to help students summarize
  • Suitable for fiction/non-fiction
  • Fiction: Somebody - Wanted - But - So
  • Non-Fiction: Something-Happened-And-Then
  • Individual - Written - Short

  • Different formats/sizes/prompts
  • Construct a pyramid of lines on a sheet of paper.
  • For each line, choose prompts that elicit one-word or short answers for shorter lines and longer responses for longer lines
  • Individual - Written - Short

  • Students write key concept words “in the shape of their meaning”
  • Similar to concrete poetry (a poem about a tree has lines that form the shape of a tree)
  • Individual – Artistic/Performance – Short

  • Possible format for exit cards
  • Write 3, 2, and 1 down left side of paper
  • Post or announce prompts for each number, asking students to write three, two, then one of something
  • Examples: explain things learned, questions remaining, connections/applications
  • Individual – Written - Short

  • Give students the topic followed by a several words/phrases related to the topic. One word should not fit in with the topic
  • Students should determine which word does not relate to the topic. Students then need to explain which word does not belong and why. Also, explain which words belong and how they are related.
  • Can be used as a warm up or summarizing activity
  • Individual - Written - Short

  • Breaks lectures into smaller chunks
  • Can be done anywhere or anytime
  • Need paper with nine squares
  • #1: record three different concepts/facts/skills they recall from the lesson
  • #2: Move around room - have other students fill in different ideas in the remaining six squares with other concepts that haven’t been recorded
  • Each student may only add one idea to another paper
  • When all nine squares are filled in, return to seats and share
  • Oral/Interactive - Written - Kinesthetic - Short

  • Students are given a bingo card with questions on it
  • Give students time to move around the room and get others to sign the squares on the card
  • A square may be signed only if that person can successfully answer that question
  • Everyone returns to their seats and the teacher calls names. If that name appears on their card, the student should cover that square.
  • When someone has bingo, they should yell “human bingo.” The students who signed the squares, must then answer the prompt or demonstrate their ability to perform the skill
  • Oral/Interactive - Kinesthetic – Extended

  • Can be used before-during-after reading
  • Provides a structure for summarizing information/retelling
  • Explain what information goes on each side of the cube
  • Demonstrate (think aloud) the process of writing key ideas on the cube/show students how to assemble the cube
  • In small groups, have students read selection and create a cube
  • Can be used as a way to share research, retell, or review content for test
  • Can include answers to the 5W’s, specific content related information, or topics/subtopics

  • R (Role): Consider different people associated with the topic
  • A (Audience): People to whom they are communicating
  • F (Form): Ways in which the information will be communicated
  • T (Time): Settings/Time period or topic
  • Provides choice
  • Individual - Written - Extended

RAFT Website: More information for using RAFT's in your classroom

Strategies/Information from Rick Wormelli's Summarization in Any Subject